Evita e a guerra do dinheiro

O aniversário dos 60 anos da morte, ou da “passagem para a eternidade”, de um dos maiores ícones da história política argentina, Evita Perón (1919-1952), se transformou também numa disputa histórico-ideológica. Tudo isso porque a presidente Cristina Kirchner, que reivindica ser uma espécie de herdeira da mítica mulher de Perón e “mãe dos pobres” nacional, resolveu homenagear Evita colocando sua imagem na nota de 100 pesos.

O anúncio da decisão foi apresentado ontem, um dia antes da efeméride de sua trágica morte, aos 33 anos, vítima de um câncer. Na apresentação, Cristina disse que não queria entrar em polêmicas, mas que já era hora de uma mulher estar representada no dinheiro argentino, além de tecer elogios à sua trajetória.

Tudo estaria muito bem se não fosse por duas razões. A primeira, o vice-presidente da nação, Amado Boudou, está sendo investigado por favorecer um amigo empresário que teria obtido favorecimento para, justamente, imprimir notas de 100 pesos. Ou seja, o governo, que deveria sentir-se desacreditado para falar do assunto, resolveu ignorar o problema e tocar adiante decisões sobre as notas. A segunda é o fato de, ao colocar Evita na nota mais valiosa do dinheiro argentino, os kirchneristas estão tentando apagar um episódio importante da história nacional.

O bilhete atual de 100 pesos traz a imagem do general Julio Argentino Roca (1843-1914). Figura sombria, foi um dos principais comandantes da nefasta Campanha do Deserto, que, no final do século 19, causou a morte de milhares de indígenas ao sul do país. Roca é um personagem praticamente indefensável, e é difícil viajar pela Argentina e constatar que, em cada cidade pequena, há uma estátua, uma praça, uma avenida com seu nome. Porém, não se pode simplesmente fazer de conta que um personagem não existiu.

Roca agiu de acordo com um pensamento vigente em seu tempo, para o qual o indígena era uma ameaça “selvagem” à vida nas cidades. O embate entre “civilização” e “barbárie”, formulado pouco antes por Domingo Faustino Sarmiento (1811-1888), era vigente não só na Argentina, mas aplicável à cultura política de muitos países recém-formados da América Latina independente. Fingir que esse dilema não existiu e que provocou monstruosidades como a Campanha do Deserto não ajuda a curar as feridas do passado, nem a entender como a Argentina do século 19 deu lugar à Argentina do século 20.



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